Main Article Content
The etiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined risk factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of oral SCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on co-factors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC.
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