Oncology Reviews 2019-02-16T00:56:46+01:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes authoritative state-of-the-art reviews on preclinical and clinical aspects of oncology.</p> <p>The journal provide up-to-date information on the latest achievements in different fields of oncology for both practising clinicians and basic researchers. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> aims at being international in scope and readership, as reflected also by its Editorial Board, gathering the world leading experts in both pre-clinical research and everyday clinical practice.</p> <p>The journal is open for publication of supplements, monothematic issues and for publishing abstracts of scientific meetings; conditions can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher.</p> <p>The journal was previously published by Springer Italy; since 2012 <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> passed on to PAGEPress.&nbsp;</p> <p>This journal does not apply the article processing charge&nbsp;to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> Breast cancer, human immunodeficiency virus and highly active antiretroviral treatment; implications for a high-rate seropositive region 2019-02-16T00:56:46+01:00 Subash Chirkut <p>Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world with the most people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The incidence of breast cancer is also rising in the region. This transcript focusses on the burden of these two diseases when they converge in the same populace. This comprehensive literature review of the topic suggests a trend towards an increasing incidence of breast cancer in the HIV-infected population, and the rationale for such a tendency is hypothesized, especially in the context of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Besides the age at diagnosis, all other clinical characteristics appear to be similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative breast cancer populations. Outcomes of the different treatment modalities for breast cancer in HIV-positive patients are also appraised and finally innovative areas of future research are suggested along with plausible recommendations.</p> 2019-01-14T12:04:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survival outcomes of patients with cervical cancer and accompanying hydronephrosis: A systematic review of the literature 2019-02-16T00:56:45+01:00 Vasilios Pergialiotis Ioannis Bellos Nikolaos Thomakos Dimitrios Haidopoulos Despina N. Perrea Konstantinos Kontzoglou Georgios Daskalakis Alexandros Rodolakis <p>Hydronephrosis is a sign of advanced stage disease in patients with cervical cancer. Its presence is believed to negatively affect the survival of patients. To date, however, consensus in this field is still lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review is to gather the available data and to provide directions for future research in the field. We systematically searched Medline, Scopus,, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRA and Google Scholar databases from inception till June 2018. Overall, 22 studies were included in the present systematic review that evaluated outcomes from 8521 patients with cervical cancer. The findings of our systematic review support that hydronephrosis negatively affects the overall survival of cervical cancer patients. Specifically, the reported 5-year OS hazards ratio for hydronephrosis ranged between 1.34 and 3.74. Outcomes concerning the disease-free survival of these patients were, however, less discrete. None of the included studies reported whether the decreased survival of patients with hydronephrosis was attributed to complications of obstructive uropathy such as uremia and sepsis. Thus, it remains, to date, unclear whether placement of ureteral stents or percutaneous nephrostomy may actually benefit these patients. More studies are needed to evaluate the actual impact of hydronephrosis on survival rates at the various stages of cervical cancer and to help establish consensus regarding the optimal mode of management of these patients.</p> 2019-01-15T11:43:22+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bortezomib therapy in a real-world setting in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma 2019-02-16T00:56:45+01:00 Shang-Yi Huang Tsai-Yun Chen Ching-Yuan Kuo Yeu-Chin Chen Sheng-Fung Lin Ming-Chih Chang Xinzhu Lv Betty Yang Cheng-Shyong Chang <p>Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor, approved for treating newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma (MM). This realworld, multicenter, observational, non-interventional study of bortezomib was designed to collect and analyze prospective data in Taiwanese patients with relapsed or refractory MM. The primary endpoints included clinical effectiveness outcomes (disease response, disease progression [PD], time-to-response, time-toprogression, response duration, and overall survival [OS]). Secondary endpoints were safety and healthcare resource utilization. Total 100 patients (median [range] age 64.9 [37.0-85.5] years) were enrolled; 47 patients completed the study. Of the withdrawn patients (n=53), there were 48 deaths (PD-related death: n=35, adverse events [AEs]-related: n=12, other reason: n=1), and 5 due to loss to follow-up. Four patients in Cycle 1, 6 patients each in Cycle 2 and 5, 7 in Cycle 3, 10 patients in Cycle 4, 5 patients in Cycle 6, and 3 patients each in Cycle 7 and 8 achieved overall response during the study. Time-to-response was 4.68 months (95%CI: 3.2, NE) and response duration was 10.08 months (95%CI: 2.3, 28.6). Median OS was 9.8 months (95%CI: 3.8, 13.7), and median time-to-progression was 11.3 months (95%CI: 6.2, 20.2). Most common non-hematological AEs were diarrhea (n=32) and hypoesthesia (n=25); most common hematological AE was thrombocytopenia (n=18). Efficacy and safety profile of bortezomib in Taiwanese patients with MM was similar to global and other Asian population. Study provides a critical insight on use of bortezomib in realworld clinical practice, which can be helpful for Taiwanese healthcare providers’ decision-making processes.</p> 2019-01-18T17:39:35+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Complex karyotype in myelodysplastic syndromes: Diagnostic procedure and prognostic susceptibility 2019-02-16T00:56:42+01:00 Mohammad Shahjahani Elham Homaei Hadad Shirin Azizidoost Kowsar Chenani Nezhad Saeid Shahrabi <p>Complex karyotype (CK) is a poor prognosis factor in hematological malignancies. Studies have shown that the presence of CK in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be associated with MDS progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The goal of this review was to examine the relationship between different types of CK with MDS, as well as its possible role in the deterioration and progression of MDS to leukemia. The content used in this paper has been obtained by a PubMed and Google Scholar search of English language papers (1975-2018) using the terms <em>complex karyotype </em>and<em> myelodysplastic syndromes</em>. A single independent abnormality can be associated with a good prognosis. However, the coexistence of a series of abnormalities can lead to CK, which is associated with the deterioration of MDS and its progression to leukemia. Therefore, CK may be referred to as a prognostic factor in MDS. The detection of independent cytogenetic disorders that altogether can result in CK could be used as a prognostic model for laboratory and clinical use.</p> 2019-02-04T11:41:17+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physiopathology and diagnosis of cardiotoxicity in patients submitted to chemotherapy treatment 2019-02-16T00:56:44+01:00 Filipe C. Marmelo Cátia F.R. Sá <p>Cardiovascular diseases and neoplastic diseases are the two main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Treated cancer patients usually develop cardiac diseases late in life due to chemotherapy-induced heart damage. The type of damage caused to the heart depends on the type of agent used during cancer treatment. It is expectable to observe ventricular impairment in patients treated with anthracyclines, while pyrimidines and some signalling inhibitors may damage the coronary circulation. Several techniques can be used to help diagnose early cardiac affections, such as biomarkers and auxiliary diagnostic tests. The information obtained can help physicians adjust chemotherapy doses, thus avoiding unnecessary heart damage. Although there is not yet a broad offer of cardioprotective drugs specific to these cases, some pharmacological agents used in common cardiology can also be applied here, such as beta-blockers and angiotensinogen-converting enzyme inhibitors.</p> 2019-02-01T10:51:11+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advances in pancreatic cancer biomarkers 2019-02-16T00:56:43+01:00 Syed Hasan Rojymon Jacob Upender Manne Ravi Paluri <p>Biomarkers play an essential role in the management of patients with invasive cancers. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDC) associated with poor prognosis due to advanced presentation and limited therapeutic options. This is further complicated by absence of validated screening and predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis and precision treatments respectively. There is emerging data on biomarkers in pancreatic cancer in past two decades. So far, the CA 19-9 remains the only approved biomarker for diagnosis and response assessment but limited by low sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we aim to review current and future biomarkers that has potential serve as critical tools for early diagnostic, predictive and prognostic indications in pancreatic cancer.</p> 2019-02-01T11:59:11+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##