Oncology Reviews 2018-12-14T23:57:04+01:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes authoritative state-of-the-art reviews on preclinical and clinical aspects of oncology.</p> <p>The journal provide up-to-date information on the latest achievements in different fields of oncology for both practising clinicians and basic researchers. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> aims at being international in scope and readership, as reflected also by its Editorial Board, gathering the world leading experts in both pre-clinical research and everyday clinical practice.</p> <p>The journal is open for publication of supplements, monothematic issues and for publishing abstracts of scientific meetings; conditions can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher.</p> <p>The journal was previously published by Springer Italy; since 2012 <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> passed on to PAGEPress. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is completely free, as it is supported by private funds.</p> Myelodysplastic syndrome from theoretical review to clinical application view 2018-12-14T23:56:56+01:00 Amrallah A. Mohammad <p>Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), called ineffective hematopoiesis is indicated by bone marrow failure and tendency to acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Since the disease is more common in elderly with non- hematology co-morbidities, the research for less toxic and curative novel agents is essential. More than 12 years without new Food and Drug Administration approved drugs in MDS management through the whole course, only 5 drugs. We summarized the basic data in diagnosis, treatment guidelines and future direction.</p> 2018-12-07T09:39:43+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The quality of guidelines in non-pharmacological prevention and management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: A review 2018-12-14T23:56:57+01:00 Shahin Salarvand Simin Hemati Payman Adibi Fariba Taleghani <p>Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect occurring in patients undergoing neurotoxic chemotherapy. However, there is no FDA-approved treatment option for it. Given the importance of clinical practice guidelines in this area, this study aimed to determine the methodological quality of extant CIPN guidelines. The study was done as part of the adaptation process of CIPN related CPGs at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A systematic search of published CPGs about chemotherapy-induced CIPN in which the AGREE II instrument was applied for appraising CPGs of CIPN was performed. In general, amongst all of the AGREE II Instrument’s domains in the evaluated CPGs, the clarity of presentation and stakeholder involvement domains took favorable scores; and other domains obtained unfavorable and relatively favorable scores. The quality of cancer therapy-induced neuropathy CPGs needs to be improved and designing high-quality CPGs must be considered.</p> 2018-10-18T12:25:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vitamin D and its receptor polymorphisms: New possible prognostic biomarkers in leukemias 2018-12-14T23:56:57+01:00 Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Pezeshki Ali Amin Asnafi Abbas Khosravi Mohammad Shahjahani Shirin Azizidoost Saeid Shahrabi <p>Several factors such as chromosomal translocations, gene mutations, and polymorphisms are involved in the pathogenesis of leukemia/lymphoma. Recently, the role of vitamin D (VD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms in hematologic malignancies has been considered. In this review, we examine the possible role of VD levels, as well as VDR polymorphisms as prognostic biomarkers in leukemia/lymphoma. Relevant English language literature were searched and retrieved from Google Scholar search engine (1985-2017). The following keywords were used: <em>vitamin D, vitamin D receptor, leukemia, lymphoma, </em>and<em> polymorphism</em>. Increased serum levels of VD in patients with leukemia are associated with a better prognosis. However, low VD levels are associated with a poor prognosis, and VDR polymorphisms in various leukemias can have prognostic value. VD biomarker can be regarded as a potential prognostic factor for a number of leukemias, including acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There is a significant relationship between different polymorphisms of VDR (including Taq I and Fok I) with several leukemia types such as ALL and AML, which may have prognostic value.</p> 2018-10-08T12:21:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Expression of CD markers in JAK2V617F positive myeloproliferative neoplasms: Prognostic significance 2018-12-14T23:56:58+01:00 Saeid Shahrabi Ali Ehsanpour Somayyeh Heidary Mohammad Shahjahani Masumeh Maleki Behzad <p>Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by the presence of JAK2<sup>V617F</sup> mutation. Thrombohemorrhagic as well as autoimmune or inflammatory phenomena are common clinical outcomes of these disorders. Recent studies have shown that abnormality in frequency and function of blood cells manifested by an alteration in CD markers’ expression patterns play a key role in these complications. So, there may be a relationship between CD markers’ expressions and prognosis of JAK2<sup>V617F</sup> positive MPNs. Therefore, in this review, we have focused on these abnormalities from the perspective of changing expressions of CD markers and assessment of the relationship between these changes with prognosis of JAK2<sup>V617F</sup> positive MPNs. It can be stated that the abnormal expression of a large number of CD markers can be used as a prognostic biomarker for clinical outcomes including thrombohememorrhagic events, as well as autoimmune and leukemic transformation in JAK2<sup>V617F</sup> positive MPNs. Considering the possible role of CD markers’ expressions in JAK2<sup>V617F</sup> MPNs prognosis, further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between the expression of CD markers with prognosis to be able to find an appropriate therapeutic approach via targeting CD markers.</p> 2018-10-02T15:45:57+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A survey of early and advanced gastric cancer treatment by surgeons in Thailand 2018-12-14T23:57:00+01:00 Prasit Mahawongkajit Prakitpunthu Tomtitchong <p>This study shows the first survey of patterns about surgeons’ approaches and current practices in early and advanced gastric cancer in Thailand. Gastric cancer is a significant health problem worldwide. International guidelines for treatment differ in their recommendations including the accompanying therapy, but the condition is potentially curable. Surgeons have played an important role in Thailand but the limitation of institutional resources and the practices for gastric cancer vary between treatment options. The aim of this study is to investigate the current practices and approaches of Thai surgeons in relation to early and advanced gastric cancer treatment. A survey was conducted on 112 surgeons who claimed to have performed clinical practice upon gastric cancer patients. Information was collected on participant demographic data, the practices approaches in early and advanced stage without metastasis and the preferable adjuvant chemotherapy. The majority of participants were 100 general surgeons (89.4%). The preferred early gastric cancer treatment proved to be endoscopic resection 83.9%, cT1bN0 group preferred laparoscopic surgery 75.9%, cT2-T4aN0 group preferred open surgery 67.8%, cT4bN0 group preferred open surgery with En bloc resection 85.7% and cN+ group preferred open surgery 70.5%. For adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, the study showed the surgeons who prescribed and treated by themselves was 41.9%. The preferred adjuvant regimens were S-1 50.9% and capecitabine and oxaliplatin 31.3%. This study is the first survey of the patterns of surgeons’ approaches and current practices in early and advanced gastric cancer in Thailand.</p> 2018-08-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advanced pancreatic cancer: The standard of care and new opportunities 2018-12-14T23:56:59+01:00 Amrallah A. Mohammad <p>Presentation of pancreatic cancer is localized, locally advanced or metastatic. With the later represented the main bulk (more than 80%). Despite the significant innovation in molecular analysis and therapeutic approach in many types of cancer in the last two decades, still the outcome of advanced pancreatic cancer is disappointing and the mortality rate approximately unchanged. In this mandated review we intended to highlight the standard of care and emerging agents for advanced pancreatic cancer treatment.</p> 2018-09-14T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cancer-related cognitive impairment in breast cancer survivors: An examination of conceptual and statistical cognitive domains using principal component analysis 2018-12-14T23:57:00+01:00 Maude Lambert Lea Ann Ouimet Cynthia Wan Angela Stewart Barbara Collins Irene Vitoroulis Catherine Bielajew <p>There is a great deal of variability in the composition of neuropsychological test batteries used in the assessment of cancerrelated cognitive impairment (CRCI). Not only the development of a gold standard approach for CRCI assessment would allow for easier identification of women suffering from CRCI but it would also promote optimal care for survivors. As a first step towards the development of a valid and reliable unified test battery, the objective of this study was to verify whether the theoretical domains commonly used in CRCI assessment are statistically supported, before and after breast cancer treatment. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on the results from 23 neuropsychological tests grouped into eight conceptual domains. For baseline data, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was .82 and Bartlett’s χ<sup>2</sup>(253, <em>N</em>=95) = 949.48, P&lt;0.001. A five-component solution explained 60.94% of the common variance. For the post-treatment data, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was .83 and Bartlett’s χ<sup>2</sup>(253, <em>N</em>=95) = 1007.21, P&lt;0.001 and a five component solution explained 62.03% of the common variance. Although a visual comparison of the theoretical model with those determined via PCA indicated important overlap between conceptual domains and statistical components, significant dissimilarities were also observed.</p> 2018-08-28T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Treat patient, not just the disease: holistic needs assessment for haematological cancer patients 2018-12-14T23:57:04+01:00 Md Serajul Islam <p>Haematological malignancies can have devastating effects on the patients’ physical, emotional, psycho-sexual, educational and economic health. With the improvement of therapies patients with these malignancies are living longer, however significant proportion these patient show poor quality of life (QoL) due to various physical and psychological consequences of the disease and the treatments. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) is multi-dimensional and temporal, relating to a state of functional, physical, psychological and social/family well-being. Compared with the general population, HRQoL of these patients is worse in most dimensions. However without routine holistic need assessment (HNA), clinicians are unlikely to identify patients with clinically significant distress. Surviving cancer is a chronic life-altering condition with several factors negatively affecting their QoL, such as psychological problems, including depression and excessive fear of recurrence, as well as social aspects, such as unemployment and social isolation. These need to be adequately understood and addressed in the healthcare of long-term survivors of haematological cancer. Applying a holistic approach to patient care has many benefits and yet, only around 25% of cancer survivors in the UK receive a holistic needs assessment. The efforts of the last decade have established the importance of ensuring access to psychosocial services for haematological cancer survivors. We need to determine the most effective practices and how best to deliver them across diverse settings. Distress, like haematological cancer, is not a single entity, and one treatment does not fit all. Psychosocialoncology needs to increase its research in comparative effectiveness.</p> 2018-07-04T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The radiation therapy options of intracranial hemangiopericytoma: An overview and update on a rare vascular mesenchymal tumor 2018-12-14T23:57:01+01:00 Maria Paola Ciliberti Rosa D'Agostino Laura Gabrieli Anna Nikolaou Angela Sardaro <p>Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an extremely rare hypervascular tumor of mesenchymal lineage. It tends to recur and to develop distant metastases even many years after primary surgical resection. The management of recurrent and metastatic disease is not always so well defined. A complete surgical resection does not eliminate the high risk of local recurrences that occur in the central nervous system, often in the same surgical bed. However, treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy even in cases of complete resection remains controversial. Because of its rarity, there is no standard for treatment. We focused on radiotherapy treatment options, analyzing the literature and making a base on conduct further studies to establish the standard radiation dose to be used for locoregional control of such a complex and extremely rare disease and to help specialists to take the most appropriate therapeutic option.</p> 2018-07-10T15:23:45+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinical development of RET inhibitors in RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer: Update 2018-12-14T23:57:02+01:00 Luis Mendoza <p>Precision oncology is now the evidence-based standard of care for the management of many advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Notably, new molecular profiling technologies have permitted dynamic growth in the identification of actionable driver oncogenes including <em>RET</em> rearrangements. <em>RET</em> oncogenes cannot be adequately detected by immunohistochemistry, although fluorescence <em>in situ</em> hybridization, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing are complementary diagnostic tools. In the clinical setting, the benefit of the most developed RET inhibitors, <em>i.e</em>., cabozantinb, vandetanib and lenvatinb, in terms of response and median progressionfree survival has been demonstrated. The absence of striking clinical results of RET inhibitors underscores the clear need for development of more selective and potent RET inhibitors. This paper reviews the clinical data available on RET inhibitors in RET-associated NSCLC.</p> 2018-07-10T14:40:23+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Testosterone, prolactin, and oncogenic regulation of the prostate gland. A new concept: Testosterone-independent malignancy is the development of prolactin-dependent malignancy! 2018-12-14T23:57:03+01:00 Leslie C. Costello Renty B. Franklin <p>Hormone-independent malignancy is a major issue of morbidity and deaths that confronts prostate cancer. Despite decades of research, the oncogenic and hormonal implications in the development and progression of prostate malignancy remain mostly speculative. This is largely due to the absence and/or lack of consideration by contemporary clinicians and biomedical investigators regarding the established implications of the co-regulation of testosterone and prolactin in the development, maintenance, metabolism and functions of the prostate gland. Especially relevant is the major metabolic function of production of high levels of citrate by the peripheral zone acinar epithelial cells. Citrate production, along with growth and proliferation by these cells, is regulated by co-existing testosterone and prolactin signaling pathways; and by the oncogenic down-regulation of ZIP1 transporter/zinc/citrate in the development of malignancy. These relationships had not been considered in the issues of hormonedependent malignancy. This review provides the relevant background that has established the dual role of testosterone and prolactin regulation of the prostate gland; which is essential to address the implications in the oncogenic development and progression of hormone-dependent malignancy. The oncogenic factor along with testosterone-dependent and prolactin-dependent relationships leads to the plausible concept that androgen ablation for the treatment of <em>testosterone-dependent</em> malignancy results in the development of <em>prolactin-dependent</em> malignancy; which is <em>testosterone-independent</em> malignancy. Consequently, both testosterone ablation and prolactin ablation are required to prevent and/or abort terminal hormonedependent prostate cancer.</p> 2018-07-04T16:03:25+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##