Oncology Reviews https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or <p><strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes authoritative state-of-the-art reviews on preclinical and clinical aspects of oncology.</p> <p>The journal provide up-to-date information on the latest achievements in different fields of oncology for both practising clinicians and basic researchers. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> aims at being international in scope and readership, as reflected also by its Editorial Board, gathering the world leading experts in both pre-clinical research and everyday clinical practice.</p> <p>The journal is open for publication of supplements, monothematic issues and for publishing abstracts of scientific meetings; conditions can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher.</p> <p>The journal was previously published by Springer Italy; since 2012 <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> passed on to PAGEPress.&nbsp;</p> <p>This journal does not apply the article processing charge&nbsp;to Authors as it is supported by institutional funds.</p> PAGEPress Scientific Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Oncology Reviews 1970-5557 <p>PAGEPress has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.&nbsp;<br><br>An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:<br><br>1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.<br>2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.<br><br>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> Thrombocytopenia in solid tumors: Prognostic significance https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/413 <p>Solid tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that result from out-of-control proliferation of cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among patients with solid tumors that predispose them to bleeding disorders. The aim of this review article is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the risk and incidence of thrombocytopenia in solid tumors. It can be argued that thrombocytopenia is a poor prognostic factor in solid tumors that can result from several factors such as polymorphism and mutation in some transcription factors and cytokines involved in megakaryocytic maturation or from the adverse effects of treatment. Therefore, an understanding of the exact mechanism of thrombocytopenia pathogenesis in each stage of solid tumors can help in developing therapeutic strategies to decrease bleeding complications in these malignancies.</p> Majid Ghanavat Mina Ebrahimi Hassan Rafieemehr Mahmood Maniati Masumeh Maleki Behzad Saeid Shahrabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.413 Physiopathology and diagnosis of cardiotoxicity in patients submitted to chemotherapy treatment https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/383 <p>Cardiovascular diseases and neoplastic diseases are the two main causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Treated cancer patients usually develop cardiac diseases late in life due to chemotherapy- induced heart damage. The type of damage caused to the heart depends on the type of agent used during cancer treatment. It is expectable to observe ventricular impairment in patients treated with anthracyclines, while pyrimidines and some signalling inhibitors may damage the coronary circulation. Several techniques can be used to help diagnose early cardiac affections, such as biomarkers and auxiliary diagnostic tests. The information obtained can help physicians adjust chemotherapy doses, thus avoiding unnecessary heart damage. Although there is not yet a broad offer of cardioprotective drugs specific to these cases, some pharmacological agents used in common cardiology can also be applied here, such as beta-blockers and angiotensinogen- converting enzyme inhibitors.</p> Filipe C. Marmelo Cátia F.R. Sá ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-01 2019-02-01 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.383 Prognostic significance of aberrant CD5 expression in B-cell leukemia https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/400 <p>Aberrant expression of CD5 (as a T-cell marker) is seen in some leukemia and lymphoma of B lineage origin. Given that the signaling resulting from the expression of this marker plays an essential role in the development of leukemia and lymphoma, evaluating the expression of this marker is of paramount importance. Therefore, our goal in this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of CD5 expression in B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. We evaluate CD5 expression in normal and leukemic B-cells by identifying relevant literature through a PubMed search (1998-2018) of English language papers using the terms: ‘<em>CD5</em>,’ ‘<em>B-cell</em>,’ ‘<em>Leukemia</em>,’ and ‘<em>Lymphoma</em>.’ We are doing this thorough comparison of results from CD5 positive and negative cases to make a correct decision about prognostic importance of CD5 expression in these malignancies. In a number of B-cell malignancies, CD5 is expressed in varying degrees. Due to the different origins and characteristics of these malignancies, the results of CD5 expression evaluations are heterogeneous and impossible to generalize. However, CD5 expression is sometimes associated with clinicopathologic findings, more invasive clinical course, and even resistance to treatment (specifically in DLBCL) among CD5- positive patients, which appears to be a function of CD5 signaling and its downstream factors such as STAT3. Depending on the type of malignancy, CD5 expression is associated with good or bad prognosis, which can be used as an auxiliary prognostic factor to assess the clinical course of B-cell malignancies. Moreover, the difference in expression levels of CD5 in a variety of B-cell malignancies allows for differential diagnosis of these malignancies, which can be helpful when diagnosis is difficult.</p> Kaveh Jaseb Daryush Purrahman Saeid Shahrabi Majid Ghanavat Hadi Rezaeean Najmaldin Saki ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.400 Prospects for repurposing CNS drugs for cancer treatment https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/411 <p>Drug repurposing is the idea of using an already approved drug for another disease or disorder away from its initial use. This new approach ensures the reduction in high cost required for developing a new drug in addition to the time consumed, especially in the tumor disorders that show an unceasing rising rate with an unmet success rate of new anticancer drugs. In our review, we will review the anti-cancer effect of some CNS drugs, including both therapeutic and preventive, by searching the literature for preclinical or clinical evidence for anticancer potential of central nervous system drugs over the last 8 years period (2010-2018) and including only evidence from Q1 journals as indicated by Scimago website (www.scimagojr.com). We concluded that Some Central Nervous system drugs show a great potential as anti-cancer in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials through different mechanisms and pathways in different types of cancer that reveal a promising evidence for the repurposing of CNS drugs for new indications.</p> Mohamed Abdelaleem Hossam Ezzat Muhammed Osama Adel Megahed Waleed Alaa Ahmed Gaber Ayman Shafei Alaa Refaat ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-17 2019-04-17 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.411 A comprehensive overview of mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletion in cancer studies https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/409 <p>Mitochondria are cellular machines essential for energy production. The biogenesis of mitochondria is a highly complex and it depends on the coordination of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and deletions are suspected to be associated with carcinogenesis. The most described mtDNA deletion in various human cancers is called the 4977-bp common deletion (mDNA<sup>4977</sup>) and it has been explored since two decades. In spite of that, its implication in carcinogenesis still unknown and its predictive and prognostic impact remains controversial. This review article provides an overview of some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mDNA<sup>4977</sup> formation and a detailed summary about mDNA<sup>4977</sup> reported in various types of cancers. The current knowledges of mDNA<sup>4977</sup> as a prognostic and predictive marker are also discussed.</p> Abdul Aziz Mohamed Yusoff Wan Salihah Wan Abdullah Siti Zulaikha Nashwa Mohd Khair Siti Muslihah Abd Radzak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-16 2019-04-16 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.409 Adherence to oral pharmacological treatment in cancer patients: Systematic review https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/402 <p>The objective was to identify the best-validated scale for assessing oral pharmacological adherence in oncology patients. A bibliographic search was performed in MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. We included all studies in which a validation of adherence scales to oral pharmacological treatment was performed in oncology patients older than 18 years without gender distinction. We excluded studies that included newly diagnosed patients. No statistical analysis was performed due to the nature of the study. A total of 4609 studies were found. After screening, six studies were selected for qualitative analysis. In the analysis of the six included studies, a total of 855 patients older than 18 years with oncological diagnoses were found. Two of the studies, Bagcivan et al. and Amorim <em>et al</em>., used scales that show acceptable validity and reliability to adequately measure adherence to pharmacological treatment in each of the patients. In this way, the quality of patient care and success in pharmacological treatments can be guaranteed. According to the results obtained in the evaluation of biases and analysis of psychometric properties, the best-validated scales are as follows: Adherence Determinants Questionnaire (ADQ) (Brazilian version) and the Oral Chemotherapy Adherence Scale (OCAS). These are valid, reliable and useful scales that can be adapted to any cultural context.</p> Melissa Perdomo Claros Claudia Viviana Marín Messa Herney Andrés García-Perdomo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-16 2019-04-16 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.402 Advances in pancreatic cancer biomarkers https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/410 <p>Biomarkers play an essential role in the management of patients with invasive cancers. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDC) associated with poor prognosis due to advanced presentation and limited therapeutic options. This is further complicated by absence of validated screening and predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis and precision treatments respectively. There is emerging data on biomarkers in pancreatic cancer in past two decades. So far, the CA 19-9 remains the only approved biomarker for diagnosis and response assessment but limited by low sensitivity and specificity. In this article, we aim to review current and future biomarkers that has potential serve as critical tools for early diagnostic, predictive and prognostic indications in pancreatic cancer.</p> Syed Hasan Rojymon Jacob Upender Manne Ravi Paluri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-01 2019-02-01 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.410 Breast cancer, human immunodeficiency virus and highly active antiretroviral treatment; implications for a high-rate seropositive region https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/376 <p>Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world with the most people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The incidence of breast cancer is also rising in the region. This transcript focusses on the burden of these two diseases when they converge in the same populace. This comprehensive literature review of the topic suggests a trend towards an increasing incidence of breast cancer in the HIV-infected population, and the rationale for such a tendency is hypothesized, especially in the context of the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Besides the age at diagnosis, all other clinical characteristics appear to be similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative breast cancer populations. Outcomes of the different treatment modalities for breast cancer in HIV-positive patients are also appraised and finally innovative areas of future research are suggested along with plausible recommendations.</p> Subash Chirkut ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-01-14 2019-01-14 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.376 Survival outcomes of patients with cervical cancer and accompanying hydronephrosis: A systematic review of the literature https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/387 <p>Hydronephrosis is a sign of advanced stage disease in patients with cervical cancer. Its presence is believed to negatively affect the survival of patients. To date, however, consensus in this field is still lacking. The purpose of the present systematic review is to gather the available data and to provide directions for future research in the field. We systematically searched Medline, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRA and Google Scholar databases from inception till June 2018. Overall, 22 studies were included in the present systematic review that evaluated outcomes from 8521 patients with cervical cancer. The findings of our systematic review support that hydronephrosis negatively affects the overall survival of cervical cancer patients. Specifically, the reported 5-year OS hazards ratio for hydronephrosis ranged between 1.34 and 3.74. Outcomes concerning the disease-free survival of these patients were, however, less discrete. None of the included studies reported whether the decreased survival of patients with hydronephrosis was attributed to complications of obstructive uropathy such as uremia and sepsis. Thus, it remains, to date, unclear whether placement of ureteral stents or percutaneous nephrostomy may actually benefit these patients. More studies are needed to evaluate the actual impact of hydronephrosis on survival rates at the various stages of cervical cancer and to help establish consensus regarding the optimal mode of management of these patients.</p> Vasilios Pergialiotis Ioannis Bellos Nikolaos Thomakos Dimitrios Haidopoulos Despina N. Perrea Konstantinos Kontzoglou Georgios Daskalakis Alexandros Rodolakis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-01-15 2019-01-15 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.387 Bortezomib therapy in a real-world setting in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/377 <p>Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor, approved for treating newly diagnosed and relapsed multiple myeloma (MM). This realworld, multicenter, observational, non-interventional study of bortezomib was designed to collect and analyze prospective data in Taiwanese patients with relapsed or refractory MM. The primary endpoints included clinical effectiveness outcomes (disease response, disease progression [PD], time-to-response, time-toprogression, response duration, and overall survival [OS]). Secondary endpoints were safety and healthcare resource utilization. Total 100 patients (median [range] age 64.9 [37.0-85.5] years) were enrolled; 47 patients completed the study. Of the withdrawn patients (n=53), there were 48 deaths (PD-related death: n=35, adverse events [AEs]-related: n=12, other reason: n=1), and 5 due to loss to follow-up. Four patients in Cycle 1, 6 patients each in Cycle 2 and 5, 7 in Cycle 3, 10 patients in Cycle 4, 5 patients in Cycle 6, and 3 patients each in Cycle 7 and 8 achieved overall response during the study. Time-to-response was 4.68 months (95%CI: 3.2, NE) and response duration was 10.08 months (95%CI: 2.3, 28.6). Median OS was 9.8 months (95%CI: 3.8, 13.7), and median time-to-progression was 11.3 months (95%CI: 6.2, 20.2). Most common non-hematological AEs were diarrhea (n=32) and hypoesthesia (n=25); most common hematological AE was thrombocytopenia (n=18). Efficacy and safety profile of bortezomib in Taiwanese patients with MM was similar to global and other Asian population. Study provides a critical insight on use of bortezomib in realworld clinical practice, which can be helpful for Taiwanese healthcare providers’ decision-making processes.</p> Shang-Yi Huang Tsai-Yun Chen Ching-Yuan Kuo Yeu-Chin Chen Sheng-Fung Lin Ming-Chih Chang Xinzhu Lv Betty Yang Cheng-Shyong Chang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-01-18 2019-01-18 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.377 Complex karyotype in myelodysplastic syndromes: Diagnostic procedure and prognostic susceptibility https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/389 <p>Complex karyotype (CK) is a poor prognosis factor in hematological malignancies. Studies have shown that the presence of CK in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be associated with MDS progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The goal of this review was to examine the relationship between different types of CK with MDS, as well as its possible role in the deterioration and progression of MDS to leukemia. The content used in this paper has been obtained by a PubMed and Google Scholar search of English language papers (1975-2018) using the terms <em>complex karyotype </em>and<em> myelodysplastic syndromes</em>. A single independent abnormality can be associated with a good prognosis. However, the coexistence of a series of abnormalities can lead to CK, which is associated with the deterioration of MDS and its progression to leukemia. Therefore, CK may be referred to as a prognostic factor in MDS. The detection of independent cytogenetic disorders that altogether can result in CK could be used as a prognostic model for laboratory and clinical use.</p> Mohammad Shahjahani Elham Homaei Hadad Shirin Azizidoost Kowsar Chenani Nezhad Saeid Shahrabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-02-04 2019-02-04 13 1 10.4081/oncol.2019.389