Oncology Reviews https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or <p><strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes authoritative state-of-the-art reviews on preclinical and clinical aspects of oncology.</p> <p>The journal provide up-to-date information on the latest achievements in different fields of oncology for both practising clinicians and basic researchers. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> aims at being international in scope and readership, as reflected also by its Editorial Board, gathering the world leading experts in both pre-clinical research and everyday clinical practice.</p> <p>The journal is open for publication of supplements, monothematic issues and for publishing abstracts of scientific meetings; conditions can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher.</p> <p>The journal was previously published by Springer Italy; since 2012 <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> passed on to PAGEPress. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is completely free, as it is supported by private funds.</p> PAGEPress Publications, Pavia, Italy en-US Oncology Reviews 1970-5557 <p>PAGEPress has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.&nbsp;<br><br>An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:<br><br>1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.<br>2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.<br><br>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms: 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</p> Advanced pancreatic cancer: the standard of care and new opportunities https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/370 <p>Presentation of pancreatic cancer is localized, locally advanced or metastatic. With the later represented the main bulk (more than 80%). Despite the significant innovation in molecular analysis and therapeutic approach in many types of cancer in the last two decades, still the outcome of advanced pancreatic cancer is disappointing and the mortality rate approximately unchanged. In this mandated review we intended to highlight the standard of care and emerging agents for advanced pancreatic cancer treatment.</p> Amrallah A. Mohammad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-09-14 2018-09-14 10.4081/oncol.2018.370 A survey of early and advanced gastric cancer treatment by surgeons in Thailand https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/369 <p>This study shows the first survey of patterns about surgeons’ approaches and current practices in early and advanced gastric cancer in Thailand. Gastric cancer is a significant health problem worldwide. International guidelines for treatment differ in their recommendations including the accompanying therapy, but the condition is potentially curable. Surgeons have played an important role in Thailand but the limitation of institutional resources and the practices for gastric cancer vary between treatment options. The aim of this study is to investigate the current practices and approaches of Thai surgeons in relation to early and advanced gastric cancer treatment. A survey was conducted on 112 surgeons who claimed to have performed clinical practice upon gastric cancer patients. Information was collected on participant demographic data, the practices approaches in early and advanced stage without metastasis and the preferable adjuvant chemotherapy. The majority of participants were 100 general surgeons (89.4%). The preferred early gastric cancer treatment proved to be endoscopic resection 83.9%, cT1bN0 group preferred laparoscopic surgery 75.9%, cT2-T4aN0 group preferred open surgery 67.8%, cT4bN0 group preferred open surgery with En bloc resection 85.7% and cN+ group preferred open surgery 70.5%. For adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, the study showed the surgeons who prescribed and treated by themselves was 41.9%. The preferred adjuvant regimens were S-1 50.9% and capecitabine and oxaliplatin 31.3%. This study is the first survey of the patterns of surgeons’ approaches and current practices in early and advanced gastric cancer in Thailand.</p> Prasit Mahawongkajit Prakitpunthu Tomtitchong ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 10.4081/oncol.2018.369 Cancer-related cognitive impairment in breast cancer survivors: an examination of conceptual and statistical cognitive domains using principal component analysis https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/371 <p>There is a great deal of variability in the composition of neuropsychological test batteries used in the assessment of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). Not only the development of a gold standard approach for CRCI assessment would allow for easier identification of women suffering from CRCI but it would also promote optimal care for survivors. As a first step towards the development of a valid and reliable unified test battery, the objective of this study was to verify whether the theoretical domains commonly used in CRCI assessment are statistically supported, before and after breast cancer treatment. Principal component analyses (PCA) were performed on the results from 23 neuropsychological tests grouped into eight conceptual domains. For baseline data, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was .82 and Bartlett’s <em>c</em><sup>2</sup>(253, N = 95) = 949.48, p &lt; .001. A fivecomponent solution explained 60.94% of the common variance. For the post-treatment data, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was .83 and Bartlett’s <em>c</em><sup>2</sup>(253, N = 95) = 1007.21, p &lt; .001 and a five component solution explained 62.03% of the common variance. Although a visual comparison of the theoretical model with those determined via PCA indicated important overlap between conceptual domains and statistical components, significant dissimilarities were also observed.</p> Maude Lambert Lea Ann Ouimet Cynthia Wan Angela Stewart Barbara Collins Irene Vitoroulis Catherine Bielajew ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 10.4081/oncol.2018.371 Treat patient, not just the disease: holistic needs assessment for haematological cancer patients https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/374 <p>Haematological malignancies can have devastating effects on the patients’ physical, emotional, psycho-sexual, educational and economic health. With the improvement of therapies patients with these malignancies are living longer, however significant proportion these patient show poor quality of life (QoL) due to various physical and psychological consequences of the disease and the treatments. Health-related QoL (HRQoL) is multi-dimensional and temporal, relating to a state of functional, physical, psychological and social/family well-being. Compared with the general population, HRQoL of these patients is worse in most dimensions. However without routine holistic need assessment (HNA), clinicians are unlikely to identify patients with clinically significant distress. Surviving cancer is a chronic life-altering condition with several factors negatively affecting their QoL, such as psychological problems, including depression and excessive fear of recurrence, as well as social aspects, such as unemployment and social isolation. These need to be adequately understood and addressed in the healthcare of long-term survivors of haematological cancer. Applying a holistic approach to patient care has many benefits and yet, only around 25% of cancer survivors in the UK receive a holistic needs assessment. The efforts of the last decade have established the importance of ensuring access to psychosocial services for haematological cancer survivors. We need to determine the most effective practices and how best to deliver them across diverse settings. Distress, like haematological cancer, is not a single entity, and one treatment does not fit all. Psychosocialoncology needs to increase its research in comparative effectiveness.</p> Md Serajul Islam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 10.4081/oncol.2018.374 The radiation therapy options of intracranial hemangiopericytoma: An overview and update on a rare vascular mesenchymal tumor https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/354 <p>Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an extremely rare hypervascular tumor of mesenchymal lineage. It tends to recur and to develop distant metastases even many years after primary surgical resection. The management of recurrent and metastatic disease is not always so well defined. A complete surgical resection does not eliminate the high risk of local recurrences that occur in the central nervous system, often in the same surgical bed. However, treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy even in cases of complete resection remains controversial. Because of its rarity, there is no standard for treatment. We focused on radiotherapy treatment options, analyzing the literature and making a base on conduct further studies to establish the standard radiation dose to be used for locoregional control of such a complex and extremely rare disease and to help specialists to take the most appropriate therapeutic option.</p> Maria Paola Ciliberti Rosa D'Agostino Laura Gabrieli Anna Nikolaou Angela Sardaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 10.4081/oncol.2018.354 Clinical development of RET inhibitors in RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer: Update https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/352 <p>Precision oncology is now the evidence-based standard of care for the management of many advanced non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Notably, new molecular profiling technologies have permitted dynamic growth in the identification of actionable driver oncogenes including <em>RET</em> rearrangements. <em>RET</em> oncogenes cannot be adequately detected by immunohistochemistry, although fluorescence <em>in situ</em> hybridization, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing are complementary diagnostic tools. In the clinical setting, the benefit of the most developed RET inhibitors, <em>i.e</em>., cabozantinb, vandetanib and lenvatinb, in terms of response and median progressionfree survival has been demonstrated. The absence of striking clinical results of RET inhibitors underscores the clear need for development of more selective and potent RET inhibitors. This paper reviews the clinical data available on RET inhibitors in RET-associated NSCLC.</p> Luis Mendoza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 10.4081/oncol.2018.352 Testosterone, prolactin, and oncogenic regulation of the prostate gland. A new concept: Testosterone-independent malignancy is the development of prolactin-dependent malignancy! https://www.oncologyreviews.org/index.php/or/article/view/356 <p>Hormone-independent malignancy is a major issue of morbidity and deaths that confronts prostate cancer. Despite decades of research, the oncogenic and hormonal implications in the development and progression of prostate malignancy remain mostly speculative. This is largely due to the absence and/or lack of consideration by contemporary clinicians and biomedical investigators regarding the established implications of the co-regulation of testosterone and prolactin in the development, maintenance, metabolism and functions of the prostate gland. Especially relevant is the major metabolic function of production of high levels of citrate by the peripheral zone acinar epithelial cells. Citrate production, along with growth and proliferation by these cells, is regulated by co-existing testosterone and prolactin signaling pathways; and by the oncogenic down-regulation of ZIP1 transporter/zinc/citrate in the development of malignancy. These relationships had not been considered in the issues of hormonedependent malignancy. This review provides the relevant background that has established the dual role of testosterone and prolactin regulation of the prostate gland; which is essential to address the implications in the oncogenic development and progression of hormone-dependent malignancy. The oncogenic factor along with testosterone-dependent and prolactin-dependent relationships leads to the plausible concept that androgen ablation for the treatment of <em>testosterone-dependent</em> malignancy results in the development of <em>prolactin-dependent</em> malignancy; which is <em>testosterone-independent</em> malignancy. Consequently, both testosterone ablation and prolactin ablation are required to prevent and/or abort terminal hormonedependent prostate cancer.</p> Leslie C. Costello Renty B. Franklin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 10.4081/oncol.2018.356